Before the time of Mughal Badshah (emperor) Akbar the Great, who assumed control of the region and included it in his seat of Afghanistan Subah in 1586, Kashmir had never experienced direct Mughal sovereignty. It was designated by Shah Jahan as a distinct subah (imperial top-ranking province) with its capital in Srinagar. Several renowned gardens, mosques, and palaces were built under the direction of the Mughal rulers. Once Mughal emperor Aurangzeb came to power in 1658 CE, religious intolerance and unfair taxes returned. After his passing, the Mughal Empire lost influence.
Mughals kings in Kashmir (1580 _ 1750)
As soon as they began to control India in 1526, they set their eyes on Kashmir. Babur, the founder of the Mughalian Dynasty, made a Lil effort in 1528. The army succeeded in 1586. On 6 October, the land collapsed.
However, the military did not have an easy time seizing the area. Between 1528 and 1586, Kashmiris fought back against the rapacious kings, and they used their political sagacity to drive the enemy army out of the area after it had taken up residence in the Valley.
Before attacking in 1586 AD, the Mughals had made a number of fruitless attempts to take it. The Mughal armies frequently attempted to invade the Muslim part but were either repulsed or forced to retreat in the face of fierce opposition. Babur’s armies reached the Valley in 1528, marking the Mughals’ first effort to capture Kashmir at that time. There was widespread hostility as a result of their presence. After receiving gifts, the Mughal soldiers were dispatched once more.
Humayun’s Invasion in Kashmir
After Babur, Humayun’s army invaded the land and conquered Srinagar, but they were unable to hold off the guerilla tactics of the Kashmiri forces, who ambushed them in the city and caused them to suffer significant losses. The mughlian troops initiated peace talks and followed an agreement.
They attempted a second time in 1533. While Mirza Haider Doghlat led an army through Zojlia. The Kashmiris formed resistance after quickly getting over their initial shock of defeat. They held on to the hostile forces, bothered them, and slowed their progress. Finally, Doghlat received advice from his advisor Ali Taghai to leave that part of the subcontinent because it would be challenging to take it over. The soldiers finally departed Kashmir along the same path they had used to enter the Valley, per an agreement negotiated between the two parties.
Mughal Army Retreat
In 1540, Doghlat conquer the valley. The Kashmiri re-emerged and fought several battles with the enemy. In 1551, they drove out the army at the battle at Mankot near Poonch and the subdued Mughals fled, but many of them were killed and their luggage confiscated. The commander of the soldiers, Qara Bahadur, was captured, but the rest of his garrison fled the battlefield. Kashmiri resistance leader Idi Raina has advanced towards Srinagar. Later, Doghlat was killed at Khampur in the central part.
His widow created peace with Kashmiri war leaders following that the family and followers of Doghlat were sent via Pakhli and Kabul to Kashghar.
A year when the death of Doghlat, Afghan military leader, Haibat Khan Niazi, marched to a geographical area however was defeated and killed in conjunction with his several chieftains by Idi Raina.
Akbar couldn’t digest the thought of Jammu as a freelance country in his neighborhood. He created his initial obtrude upon the depression in 1560 once he sent an oversized incursive force, however, because the expected support from some Kashmiri nobles wasn’t forthcoming, they failed to advance beyond Rajouri. However, Kashmiri troops beneath Kaji Chak attacked and defeated the Mongolian soldiers. A present of associate Ashrafi was declared for every head of Mughal troopers, and 700 heads were dropped to collect the award. In some cases, the reward was given 5 times additional.
Meanwhile, the ruler of Kashmir, Yusuf Shah Chak, faced a revolt and was forced to abdicate the throne within two months of his coronation. In 1580, he traveled to Agra and requested Akbar’s help to regain his crown. Akbar sent his troops with Yusuf Shah Chak under the command of Raja Man Singh. Yusuf managed the troops alone and was able to reclaim his throne.
Meanwhile, Akbar asked Yusuf to appear in court three times in person, but on the advice of his adviser, he refrained from doing so. He sent his son to Akbar with a present. Furious, Akbar sent an army of 5,000 men to conquer that land. Satisfied with Akbar, Yusuf had no choice but to prepare for the defense. They refused. Bad weather, lack of food, and strong resistance from the troops added to the plight of the army but made no progress. Bhagwan Dass asked Yousuf to appear in front of the king. The nobles once again advised Yusuf not to take such action, but the mad king betrayed him and fled to the Mongol camps in February 1586
Akbar’s armed force propelled a new assault on the area, confronted solid resistance, and endured serious beating in different places. They misplaced numerous soldiers—300 in a battle at Gusu and 1,500 in another at Hanjik. The commander of the armed force, Qasim Khan, was so crippled that he asked Akbar to call him back, but the last-mentioned sent him support instep. The Mughal armed force was eventually effective in adding that on 6 October 1586.
The misfortune of flexibility was an extraordinary stun and difficulty to the Kashmiris. The Mughalian officers were despised by Kashmiris as an armed force of occupation and there happened numerous revolting occurrences including among the troopers and the Kashmiris.
The capable Muslim families such as the Shah Mirs, Chaks, Magres, Raina’s, Maliks, and Bhats were pulled down from tall platforms, and inside a brief span of time, they were overlooked.