Islamic Leaders Claiming Succession from Muhammad



June 5, 2022

Islamic Leaders Claiming Succession

Heirs are basically the rulers of the Muslim community after Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). Indeed, after the death of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) process of succession began. Islamic Leaders Claiming Succession from Muhammad. Abu Baker (R. A) was the first-ever successor of the Muslim community. The majority of the Muslim community elected him.

Brief View of History

Prophet (PBUH) assigned A chain of highly qualified successors. Indeed, those heads play an important role as guardians of the divine law. The leadership and guardianship were given to the most eligible people after Prophet (P.B.U.H). The phase of succession after Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was known as the phase of “Khalifa -e- Rasul Allah” which means the “successor of the messenger of God”. Success Successors are also known as Caliphs in Islamic history. After Abu Bakar (R. A), Umar Bin Khitab (R. A) is titled “Khalifa. e. Abu Bakar” which means a successor to Abu Baker. A dynasty based in Umayyad Caliphates. The early dynasty lasts to schism. This makes difference between Sunnite and Shi’ite groups of succession. Shi’ite believe in legitimate succession.
Umayyad rulers held the Muslim community after them. it was divided into different groups and categories. The community created the whole difference. The community itself makes its own beliefs. However, this results in the establishment of two major groups, Sunnites and Shi’ites. Also, the Sunni community believes that Hazmat Abu Baker (R. A) was the only perfect successor after Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). On the other side, Shia Utah believe that Hazmat Ali (R. A) was the best successor. After the death of the last messenger of Allah (S.W.T), Hazmat Abubakar started a military campaign against the rebellions. That’s how the kingdom of the Caliphate was started.

Rashid Caliphate

  1. Hazrat Abu Baker (R. A)
  2. Hazrat Umar Bin Khittab (R. A)
  3. Hazrat Usman Ghani (R. A)
  4. Hazrat Ali (R. A)

With the death of Muhammad in 632 CE, disagreements arose among his followers over who should be the next head of Utah. Prophet Muhammad’s (P.B.U.H) best friend Hazmat Umar in Al-Shabab (R. A) appointed Abu Bakr(R. A), Hazrat Muhammad’s friend and ally. With additional support, Abu Bakr confirmed as caliph (a follower of Muhammad’s religion) in the same year. Some of Muhammad’s friends contested the election. Who claimed that Ali in Abi Talib, his cousin, and son-in-law, had been nominated by Muhammad’s successor to Hair Thumb. Ali was Muhammad’s first cousin and a very close relative of the man, as well as her son-in-law, married to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima. Hazrat Ali (R. A)would eventually become the fourth Sunni ruler.

Dispute Among Followers

This disagreement about Muhammad’s true followers led to a major division of Islam between what became Sunni and Shi’ah sects, a division that still exists today. However, Sunni Muslims believe and affirm that the community elected Abu Bakr and that this is the right procedure. According to the Sunnis, consensus should choose the caliph. Shi’a Muslims believe that just as God alone appoints a prophet, only God has the authority to appoint a follower of his prophet. While they believe that God chose Ali to be the heir of Muhammad and the first caliph of Islam. Many tribes claimed to have surrendered to Muhammad and that by the death of Muhammad, their allegiance had come to an end.

The companion of the messenger of Allah highlighted that they had not only submitted to the leader but had joined the Ummah Muslim community. In order to maintain the unity of the Islamic State, Abu Bakr divided his Islamic army in order to force the Arab tribes to submit to it. After a series of successful campaigns. His general Khalid ibn Walid defeated his rival prophet and the Arabian Peninsula was annexed under caliphate rule in Medina. When the revolt was over, Abu Bakr began the conquest. In just a few decades, his campaigns led to one of the greatest empires in history.

The Muslim armies conquered much of Arabia in 633, followed by northern Africa, Mesopotamia, and Persia, which dramatically shaped the history of the world with the spread of Islam.

The reign of the Caliphates

The first Caliph appointed Umar as his successor on the deathbed. Umar ibn Khattab, also the second ruler killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. Umar’s successor, Uthman Ibn Affan, elected by the electoral council (Majlis). Members of the untouchables killed Uthman. Ali then took over, but Egyptian Rulers cannot accept him as a ruler internationally. And later by some of his bodyguards. He faced two major rebels and Abu Abd al-Rahman killed him, a Kharijite. Ali’s stormy reign lasted only five years. This period is fitna or the first Islamic civil war. Ali’s followers later became the Shi’a sect of Islam, denying the legitimacy of the first three Caliphs. While followers of all four Caliphs in Rashidun (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali) became the Sunni sect. Moreover, under Rashidun, each caliphate (Sultanate) region had its own ruler (Sultan).

Also, Mu’awiya, a relative of Uthman and the ruler (Wali) of Syria, became one of Ali’s opponents. After Ali’s assassination. He was able to defeat others who wanted the kingdom. Mu’awiya turned the Caliphate into an office of inheritance, thus establishing the Umayyad dynasty. Also, in areas occupied by the Sassanid Persian or Byzantine empires, the Caliphs lowered taxes, gave greater local liberty (to delegated rulers), granted Jews and other indigenous Christians more religious freedom, and brought peace to the depressed and afflicted. and heavy-duty caused by decades of Byzantine-Persian wars.

You can also read about Mughal History.


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